Placental Tissue with CryoMaxx™ ProcessingTM
Americord is the pioneer of and only cord blood bank to offer CryoMaxxTM Placental Processing – because stem cell banking should benefit the whole family.
We know your first priority is the well-being of your child, but with CryoMaxxTM Placental Processing, Americord is also committed to helping the rest of your family live healthier, longer lives. These stem cells can be used to treat your newborn, but also every other first- or- second-degree relative. That means mom, dad, siblings, and even grandma and grandpa can use these cells, should the need ever arise. Banking this tissue is an opportunity to give your entire family access to the future of regenerative stem cell medicine.
What is The Placenta?
The placenta is a disc-shaped organ that develops during pregnancy and is attached to the wall of the uterus. It connects to the baby via the umbilical cord. The umbilical cord delivers oxygen and nutrients to the baby and removes waste products from the baby.
The placenta holds an important role during pregnancy. It acts as a barrier to bacteria and viruses to protect the baby. It also produces hormones and signaling molecules that help the baby grow.
Why is the Placental Tissue Important?
The placenta can do so much more than protect the baby in the womb! The placental membrane consists of two layers: amnion and chorion. The amnion layer is baby facing. The chorion layer is maternal facing. When both layers are cryo-preserved, potential treatment opportunities exponentially multiply for your baby, their siblings, parents, and even grandparents.
The Placental Membrane Contains:
As researchers have studied placental membranes in more depth, they have learned that each part of the placental membrane plays a significant role in regenerative medicine. The key elements of placental membranes include:⁵
- Amniotic Epithelial Cells (AECs): Present on the top-most layer of amnion and can differentiate into various types of cells and tissue types.⁶
- Amniotic Mesenchymal Stem Cells (AMSCs): Multi-potent stem cells capable of differentiating into a number of different cell and tissue types.⁷
- Chorion Trophoblast Stem Cells (CTSCs): Present in the lowermost layer of chorion and are precursor cells of differentiated cells of the placenta responsible for oxygen and nutrient exchange
- Growth Factors: Signaling molecules that regulate cell growth and tissue regeneration.
- Cytokines: Signaling molecules that regulate inflammation.
- Extracellular Matrix (ECM): A three-dimensional structure consisting of various collagens and proteins that directs cellular behavior such as differentiation, proliferation, and signaling.
Top: Scientific illustration of the layers of placental membrane. The amnion contains two types of stem cells, the amniotic epithelial cells and mesenchymal stem cells. Bottom: Top down view of the amnion showing the prevalence of amniotic epithelial cells.⁴
Clinical Trials Using Placental Tissue
The placental membrane has been used for more than a century to successfully treat wounds and burns.¹⁻³ The first known application was at Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1910.
Amniotic epithelial cells and amniotic mesenchymal stem cells are currently being studied for:⁸⁻⁹
- Autoimmune diseases
- Graft vs Host disease
- Gynecological conditions
- Lung diseases
- Neurological disorders
- Orthopedic conditions
Placenta tissue containing multi-potent cells, growth factors, cytokines, and ECM is being studied in a number of clinical trials. The amnion layer was specifically chose by scientists because it has a structure that is similar to that of skin and ocular surfaces:¹⁰⁻¹⁶
- Corneal Healing
- Dry Eye
Amnion + Chorion Membranes
- Chronic Venous Leg Ulcers
- Diabetic Foot Ulcers
- Knee Osteoarthritis
- Pressure Ulcers
The amnion has a structure similar to that of skin making it an ideal option as a skin substitute to treat wounds.¹⁰
The Difference Between Cord Tissue and Placental Tissue Banking
Many private cord blood banks cryopreserve cord tissue, but very few offer placental tissue banking. Americord is the only company to offer CryoMaxx™ Processing for cord tissue and placental tissue. Placental tissue contains more cell types compared to cord tissue.
Cord tissue and placental tissue have different application uses. Cord tissue is used for surgical applications inside the body (ex: tendon repair, cartilage repair, or orthopedic surgery). Placenta tissue used for topical applications (ex: wound healing, treating eye conditions, ulcers).
Americord CryoMaxx™ Placental Tissue Processing
Americord’s unique proprietary CryoMaxx™ processing method uses a minimal manipulation method to isolate the amnion and chorion layers of the placental tissue and retain their inherent multipotent cells, growth factors, and cytokines.
The amnion and chorion are cryopreserved and stored in multiple vials, ensuring the potential for multiple uses for your baby, siblings, parents, or grandparents. This processing method creates a versatile tissue and gives families the flexibility to use:
- Amniotic epithelial cells, amniotic mesenchymal stem cells, and chorion trophoblast stem cells for therapeutic applications.
- Amniotic tissue (amnion + chorion) containing multi-potent cells, growth factors, and cytokines for wound and ocular applications.
Special Note to California Residents
CryoMaxx™ Placental Tissue Processing is currently not available for residents in the state of California. Placental Tissue 2.0™ is offered to California residents interested in placental tissue cryo-preservation. Americord’s unique proprietary Placental Tissue 2.0™ processing method uses a minimal manipulation method to isolate the amnion layer of the placental tissue to retain its inherent multipotent cells, growth factors, and cytokines. Read More.
Should I bank all three – cord blood, cord tissue, and placental tissue?
- Davis J (1910) Skin transplantation with a review of 550 cases at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Johns Hopkins Med J 15:307
- Sabella N (1913) Use of the fetal membranes in skin grafting. Med Rec 83:478–480
- Stern M (1913) The grafting of preserved amniotic membranes to burned and ulcerated surfaces, substituting skin grafts. JAMA 60:973
- Torre, Paz d.l., and Ana I. Flores. 2021. “Current Status and Future Prospects of Perinatal Stem Cells” Genes 12, no. 1: 6. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12010006
- Elkhenany et al. Stem Cell Research & Therapy (2022) 13:8
- Zhang, Q., Lai, D. Application of human amniotic epithelial cells in regenerative medicine: a systematic review. Stem Cell Res Ther 11, 439 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-020-01951-w
- Front. Endocrinol., 02 October 2020 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2020.543623
- Zhang, Q., Lai, D. Application of human amniotic epithelial cells in regenerative medicine: a systematic review. Stem Cell Res Ther 11, 439 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-020-01951-w.
- Mamede et al. Cell Tissue Res (2012) 349:447–458
- Farhadihosseinabadi,Behrouz et al. (2018) Amniotic membrane and its epithelial and mesenchymal stem cells as an appropriate source for skin tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology, 46:sup2, 431-440, https://doi.org/10.1080/21691401.2018.1458730
- Farivar, Behzad S et al. “Prospective study of cryopreserved placental tissue wound matrix in the management of chronic venous leg ulcers. Journal of vascular surgery. Venous and lymphatic disorders vol. 7,2 (2019): 228-233. doi:10.1016/j.jvsv.2018.09.016
- Liu, Jinghua et al. Effectiveness of Cryopreserved Amniotic Membrane Transplantation in Corneal Ulceration: A Meta-Analysis, Cornea: April 2019 – Volume 38 – Issue 4 – p 454-462 doi: 10.1097/ICO.0000000000001866
- Lavery, Lawrence et al. “Open-label Extension Phase of a Chronic Diabetic Foot Ulcer Multicenter, Controlled, Randomized Clinical Trial Using Cryopreserved Placental Membrane Wounds : a compendium of clinical research and practice vol. 30,9 (2018): 283-289.
- Cheng, Anny et al. “Accelerated Restoration of Ocular Surface Health in Dry Eye Disease by Self-Retained Cryopreserved Amniotic Membrane” Science Direct. (2015). https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1542012415001159
- Dehghani, Mehdi et al. “Grafting with Cryopreserved Amniotic Membrane versus Conservative Wound Care in Treatment of Pressure Ulcers: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Bulletin of emergency and trauma vol. 5,4 (2017): 249-258. doi:10.18869/acadpub.beat.5.4.452.